6. Selected C++ Aspects

This page links to tutorials for C++ features commonly used within Tudat. It contains links to existing tutorials online and gives some code examples of its use within Tudat.

6.1. C++ basics

For those who are not familiar with the C++ language, some excellent tutorials can be found at cplusplus.com. Also, this site contains documentation of the standard C++ library std:: and could be of use when using functions from it.

6.2. Iterators

Iterators are used in Tudat to acces elements of containers. It provides a general method of accesing elements of containers independent of the container type.

A short description of iterators is written by Alex Allain on Cprogramming.com. A more elaborate tutorial which also explains the different iterator types is written by K. Hong on BoboToBogo.com.

Below are some examples of how iterators are used within Tudat. The first is from Inner Solar System Propagation. Here an iterator is used to obtain the propagation history of all propagated bodies from the integrationResult container as obtained from the DynamicsSimulator:

// Retrieve numerically integrated state for each body.
std::vector< std::map< double, Eigen::VectorXd > > allBodiesPropagationHistory;
allBodiesPropagationHistory.resize( numberOfNumericalBodies );
for( std::map< double, Eigen::VectorXd >::const_iterator stateIterator = integrationResult.begin( );
     stateIterator != integrationResult.end( ); stateIterator++ )
    for( unsigned int i = 0; i < numberOfNumericalBodies; i++ )
        allBodiesPropagationHistory[ i ][ stateIterator->first ] = stateIterator->second.segment( i * 6, 6 );

Which loops over all the keys (integration time) from the integrationResults and obtains the state of all numerical bodies, which are all stored inside one single Eigen::VectorXd during integration, and puts it in seperate Eigen::VectorXd’s.

Another example is used in the example application described in Use of Thrust: User-defined Thrust Vector:

// Manually add thrust force in LVLH frame to output
for( std::map< double, Eigen::VectorXd >::iterator outputIterator = dependentVariableResult.begin( );
     outputIterator != dependentVariableResult.end( ); outputIterator++ )
    Eigen::Matrix3d currentRotationMatrix =
            getMatrixFromVectorRotationRepresentation( outputIterator->second.segment( 3, 9 ) );
    Eigen::Vector3d currentThrust = outputIterator->second.segment( 0, 3 );
    Eigen::VectorXd newOutput = Eigen::VectorXd( 15 );
    newOutput.segment( 0, 12 ) = outputIterator->second;
    newOutput.segment( 12, 3 ) =
            integrationResult.at( outputIterator->first )( 6 ) *
            ( currentRotationMatrix.transpose( ) * currentThrust );
    dependentVariableResult[ outputIterator->first ] = newOutput;

Here an iterator is used to acces the elements of a map. In this case the dependentVariables saved during propagation. One creates an iterator from the container used (std::map). The loop starts at the first element of the dependentVariable container (in this case from the initial time of the propagation) by using the .begin() function and ends when the iterator reaches the last element in the std::map found by using the .end() function. The value inside the map is accessed by: